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Bio Words: bio-, bi-, -bia, -bial, -bian, -bion, -biont, -bius, -biosis, -bium, -biotic, -biotical, -biotic (Greek: life; living).

Don’t confuse this element with another bi- that means “two”.

Quiz   If you would like to take a self-scoring quiz over some of the words in this section, then click Bio-Quiz so you can see how much you know about the following “bio” words.

The sum total of the non-living components of an environment.
The (supposed) origin or evolution of living organisms from lifeless matter without the action of living parents; “spontaneous generation” (introduced by Professor Thomas H. Huxley in addressing the British Association at Liverpool, September, 1870).
Of or pertaining to abiogenesis.
In an abiogenetic manner; by way of abiogenesis.
abiogenic, abiogenically:
Not derived from living organisms; occurring independently of life or life processes, but perhaps preceding or leading to them. Antonymous to biogenic.
One who holds or advocates the hypothesis of abiogenesis.
abiogenous, abiogeny:
Coming into existence without springing from antecedent living beings; produced by “spontaneous generation”.
Not pertaining to biology; pertaining to the study of inanimate things. Also: abiotic, inanimate.
abiology, abiologic, abiological:
The study of inanimate or non-living things.
The study of inorganic processes in living organisms.
The non-living component of the total particulate matter suspended in water.
1. Devoid of life; non-living.
2. Absence or deficiency of life; abiotrophy.
abiotic, abiotically:
1. Characterized by the absence of life; inanimate.
2. That which is harmful to or destructive of living organisms.
3. Incompatible with life.
abiotrophy, abiatrophy, abionergy:
The progressive loss of vitality of certain tissues or organs leading to disorders or loss of function; applied especially to degenerative hereditary diseases of late onset.
A noncombustible rock that is organic or formed by organic accumulation of minerals; the category includes diatomite, radiolarite, phosphorite, and some limestones.
The study of the effects of radiation on living organisms.
aerobic, aerobiosis, aerobiotic:
1. Growing or occurring only in the presence of molecular oxygen.
2. An environment in which the partial pressure of oxygen is similar to normal atmospheric levels.
aerobiology, aerobiological:
1. The study of airborne micro-organisms or spores and their distribution, especially as agents of infection.
2. That branch of biology that deals with the distribution of living organisms by air, either the exterior or outdoor air (extramural aerobiology) or the indoor air (intramural aerobiology).
Someone who studies or specializes in the study of airborne microorganisms or spores.
Either an organism living in air as distinct from water or soil or an organism requiring oxygen.
An apparatus for determining the bacterial content of the air.
aerobiosis, aerobiotic:
Existence in an atmosphere containing oxygen.
A tumor formed by air filling an adventitious pouch, such as laryngocele and trachecele.
That part of the biosphere in which heterotrophic organisms occur but into which organic food material must be transported as primary production does not take place.
The remains of an amphibious animal found in the fossil state.
amphibiology, amphibiological:
That part of zoology that deals with amphibious animals.
Amphibion (singular), Amphibia (plural):
A class of quadruped vertebrates containing frogs, newts, salamanders, toads, cecilians (caecilians) and many fossil groups.
The condition of an organism that spends part of its life on land and part in water.
Animals that can live on both land and in water.
In an amphibious manner; like an amphibious being.
The quality of being amphibious; life in, or connection with, two elements.
Perennial (constantly recurring or lasting for an indefinite time).
1. Restoration of vital processes after their apparent cessation.
2. A revival or resuscitation of life; returning to life.
3. The condition of an organism that has passed into a resting stage, that is cyclic or seasonal, but produced by a change in the environment; such as, the loss of moisture.
1. Apparently lifeless, but still capable of living.
2. Acting as a stimulant or tonic.
3. A revivifying remedy, a powerful stimulan; resuscitating or restorative.
Any organism that can live in the absence of oxygen, obligate anaerobes being unable even to live in low oxygen concentrations.
An organism capable of anaerobic existence.
anaerobiosis, anaerobiotic, anaerobiosis:
Life in a medium devoid or empty of free oxygen; existence in an oxygen-free atmosphere.
An organism incapable of using oxygen as distinct from one that is aerobic.
The study of the biologic relationships of humans as a species.
Obsolete term for a record of the resistance of microbes to various antibiotics.
A microorganism producing antimicrobial substances; antipathetic organisms.
1. A condition of antagonism between organisms, especially micro-organisms (antonym of symbiosis).
2. The antagonistic association between two organisms in which one species adversely affects the other, often by production of a toxin.
3. An association of two organisms which is detrimental to one of them, in contrast to probiosis.
4. Production of an antibiotic by bacteria or other organisms inhibitory to other living things, especially among soil microbes.
1. Related to antibiosis.
2. Destructive of life.
3. A chemical substance produced by a microorganism that has the capacity, in dilute solutions, to inhibit the growth of or to kill other microorganisms.
4. Opposed to a belief in the presence or the possibility of life.
Substances that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases of man, animals, and plants.
Death, especially local death of a part of an organism.
The original development or origin of life.
1. A period of reduced metabolic activity (chemical and physical processes involved in the maintenance of life).
2. Either the condition of an inactive larva not yet metamorphosed to a pupa or autointoxication, particularly among insects.
A branch of biology concerned with the discovery or study of life on the celestial bodies or in outer space.
Dormancy induced by low temperatures.
The writing of one’s own history; the story of one’s life written by that person.
An autobiography is a book that reveals nothing bad about its writer except his/her memory.
—Attributed to E. C. McKenzie

autobiographic, autobiographical:
Of the nature or character of an autobiography.
autobiographist, autobiographer:
Someone who writes the story of her/his own life.
That part of the biosphere in which energy is fixed by photosynthesis in green plants.
The increasing concentration of a compound, usually applied to fat soluble pesticides such as DDT, in the bodies of living organisms at successively higher levels in the food chain. Also known as: biological amplification and biomagnification.
Plant or animal species that accumulates heavy metals or other environmental contaminants in its tissues, and can be used as an indicator of the presence of chronic pollution by these compounds, especially where amounts of pollutant in the environment are too low to be easily detectable.
1. The science dealing with the effects of sound fields or mechanical vibrations in living organisms.
2. The science dealing with the communicating sounds made by animals.
3. The study of the effects of sounds on living things.
Referring to a substance that can be acted upon by a living organism or by an extract from a living organism.
The effect that a substance or agent has on living tissue or an organism.
1. A modification of the activated sludge method of purifying sewage.
2. A system of purifying sewage by oxidation, in which crude sewage is passed through special centrifugal pumps.
A type of behavior in which an organism benefits another member of its species without concern for its own welfare and often to its own detriment.
A branch of anthropology that deals with humans as biological organisms, including areas such as primatology, human genetics, human ecology, paleoanthropology, and fields of applied anthropology such as anthropometrics and forensic anthropology.
A discipline in which the concepts of human biology are integrated with anthropological archeology.
Determination of the potency or concentration of a compound by its effect upon animals, isolated tissues, or microorganisms, as compared with an analysis of its chemical or physical properties.
The study of the effects of space travel and space habitation on living organisms.
The study of the possibility of life in the universe other than on Earth.
1. A bioassay of certain compounds, usually antibiotics or vitamins, by evaluating their ability to enhance the growth of some organism and to repress that of others.
2. Classification of organic material by using solid absorbents that have affinities for specific elements.
1. The physiological availability of a given amount of a drug, as distinct from its chemical potency; proportion of the administered dose which is absorbed into the bloodstream.
2. The degree to which a drug administered is distributed throughout the body and thus available for action at the desired receptor sites.
An elementary unit of protoplasmic structure.
“An event in which dozens of scientists fan out across some unlikely habitat, hell-bent on recording every species they can find, dead or alive, in a 24-hour period.”

As described in the April, 2000, issue of Smithsonian, in an article titled “Wanted, Dead or Alive” by Richard Conniff, page 21. The sub-title states, “When scientists go scavenging at a BioBlitz, anything they can find that’s organic [apparently non-vegetarian] is considered fair game”.

The number of contaminating organisms found on a given amount of material prior to undergoing an industrial sterilization procedure.
A substance of biological origin that can catalyze a reaction; q.v. (quod vide = “which see”), an enzyme.
biocen, biocoen:
The sum of all the living components of an environment or habitat.
biocenology, biocoenology:
1. The study of biotic communities.
2. The study of communities of organisms and of the relationship among the members of such communities.
biocenosis, biocoenosis, biocenotic, biocoenotic:
1. An assemblage of species living in a particular biotope (biotic community).
2. An ecological unit comprising both plant and animal populations of a habitat.
Regarding or treating life as a central fact.
A specialist in biochemistry.
biochemistry, biochemical:
1. The chemistry of living organisms and of the chemical, molecular, and physical changes occurring therein; such as, biological chemistry and physiological chemistry.
2. The science dealing with the substances present in living organisms and with their relation to each other and to the life of the organism; biological or physiological chemistry.

Biochemistry includes the chemical reactions of living cells. It is based on the idea that all of life can be understood as chemistry. Situated between biology and chemistry, the field of biochemistry relates to all branches of chemistry and biology, ranging from genetics to physical chemistry, from medicine to agriculture, from nutrition to biotechnology.

Denoting the relationship between biologic action and chemical structure, as in food and drugs.
1. The study of the relationship between biologic action and chemical structure.
2. Macroscopic or gross morphology as revealed by biochemical
An experimental type of integrated circuit whose basic components are organic molecules.
The largest division or region of animal and plant environment; such as, forest, desert, grassland, etc. A smaller area is called a biotope.
biochrome, biochromic, biochromy:
Any natural coloring matter of plants or animals; natural pigment.
A relatively short-lived fossil flora or fauna.
1. In geology, the study of the age of the earth based on the relative dating of rocks and geologic events by the use of fossil evidence.
2. The dating of biological events using biostratigraphic or
paleontological methods.
biocide, biocidal:
1. Destructive of life; particularly pertaining to microorganisms.
2. A chemical toxic or other lethal process that kills or destroys living organisms; such as, a pesticide, herbicide, or fungicide.
bioclast, bioclastic:
A single fossil fragment.
Free of living organisms.
Relating to the relationship between climate and living organisms, or to the study of bioclimatology.
An individual skilled in bioclimatology.
bioclimatology, bioclimatological, bioclimatics:
1. The study of climate in relation to living organisms and especially to human health.
2. The science of the relationship of climatic factors to the distribution, numbers, and types of living organisms (fauna and flora) of conditions of the natural environment (rainfall, daylight, temperature, humidity, air movement) prevailing in specific regions of the earth; an aspect of ecology.
The sum total of the living components of an environment.
biocoenosis, biocenosis, biocoenosis, biocenosis, biocoenose, biocenose:
An association of organisms forming a biotic community; the relationship that exists between such organisms.
biocoenology, biocenology:
1. The study of the associations of organisms that form biotic communities.
2. The qualitative and quantitative study of communities of organisms.
biocompatible, biocompatibility:
1. The compatibility of a donated organ or artificial limb with the living tissue into which it is implanted or with which it is brought into contact. Incompatibility leads to toxic reactions or immunological rejection.
2. Being harmonious with life; not having toxic or injurious effects on biological function.
A very fast computer made from biochemical substances instead of conventional materials. Its calculations are performed using biological processes instead of semiconductor technology.
The uptake of a heavy metal or chemical compound such as a pesticide from the environment and its accumulation in the cells of living organisms; such as, in a particular part of a plant or animal body.
The conversion of organic material into a source of energy, using biological processes or organisms.
A bureaucrat representing the interests of the biological sciences or environmental protection.
1. The science of communication and control within a living organism, particularly on a molecular basis.
2. The science of communications and control in animals.
1. One of the three main divisions of the biosphere: marine, freshwater, or terrestrial habitat.
2. The rhythmic repetition of certain phenomena observed in living organisms.
biodata, bio:
Biographical details, especially those supplied by candidates applying for jobs; a résumé.
biodegradable, biodegradability, biodegradation:
1. Anything that is susceptible to the decomposing action of living organisms, especially of bacteria; which are occasionally broken down by biochemical processes in the body.
2. Denoting a substance that can be chemically degraded or decomposed by natural processes (for example: weather, soil bacteria, plants, animals) without harming the environment. Also, biodeterioration.
biodegradation, biodegrade:
1. The series of processes by which living systems render chemicals less noxious to the environment.
2. The conversion of molecules from one form to another within an organism, often associated with change in pharmacologic activity; refers especially to drugs and other xenobiotics. Also, biotransformation.
A substitute for diesel fuel made wholly or partly from organic products, especially processed vegetable oils such as soybean oil and groundnut oil.
The science dealing with the integration of ecology and the genetics of human populations.
Capable of being decomposed into harmless elements without danger to the environment.
Detritus derived from the disintegration and decomposition of once-living organisms; further designated as phytodetritus or zoodetritus, depending on whether the original organism was vegetable or animal. Detritus is matter that is produced by or remains after the wearing away or disintegration of a substance or tissue.
1. In zoology, the existence of a wide range of different species in a given area or during a specific period of time.
2. In different contexts it may denote: the number of different species present in a given environment (species diversity); the genetic diversity within a species (genetic diversity); the number of different ecosystems present in a given environment (ecological diversity).
biodynamics, biodynamic, biodynamical:
1. That part of biological science that deals with vital force, or of the action of living organisms.
2. The science dealing with the force or energy of living matter.
3. The study of how energy, motion, and other forces affect living things.
4. The scientific study of the nature and determinants of all organismic (including human) behavior.
One who favors or specializes in bioecology. Also ecologist.
bioecology, bioecological:
The science of organisms as affected by the factors of their environments; study of the environment and life history of organisms. Also, ecology.
bioelectric, bioelectricity:
Of or pertaining to electrical phenomena produced in living organisms such as that which is generated by muscle and nerve tissue.
The use of techniques, tools, and knowledge gained in the study of the electrochemistry and physiology of living organisms.
Electrical production by living organisms.
1. The study of the role of intermolecular transfer of electrons in biological regulation and defense.
2. The science of electronic effect and control of living organisms.
An chemical element that is required by a living organism or which is a component of living tissue.
1. The study of the transformations of energy in living organisms; such as, photosynthesis.
2. The study of energy changes involved in the chemical reactions within living tissue.
3. The study of energy exchanges between living organisms and their environments.
4. A combination of therapies, including breathing and body exercise and the free expression of feelings and impulses, designed to relieve tension and release physical and emotional energy.
1. The application of engineering techniques to biological processes; such as, the creation of drugs utilizing bacteria, molds, yeasts, etc.
2. The science that specializes in the manufacture of artificial replacements for various parts or organs of the body.
3. The application of engineering methods for achieving biosynthesis of animal and plant products, such as fermentation processes.
Environment as it affects and is affected by living organisms.
bioequivalent, bioequivalence:
Having the same strength and similar bioavailability in the same dosage form as another specimen of a given drug substance. Bioequivalence is a function of bioavailability, and the terms are often used synonymously. Therapeutically equivalent preparations need not be either chemically equivalent or bioequivalent.
Erosion resulting from the direct action of living organisms as with the feeding of epibionts on reefs by urchins and grazing fish which results in scraping off bits of calcium carbonate. It is believed that the majority of sand-sized particles on reefs probably come from grazing activities.
bioethics, bioethical:
1. Study of moral problems connected with such issues as euthanasia, surrogate motherhood, genetic engineering, etc.
2. The study of ethical problems involved in biological research; such as, in genetics, organ transplants, and artificial insemination; especially when the application of advanced technology is involved.
A subdivision of a sedimentary unit based on a distinctive assemblage of fossils.
A training technique that enables an individual to gain some element of voluntary control over autonomic body functions; based on the learning principle that a desired response is learned when received information such as a recorded increase in skin temperature (feedback) indicates that a specific thought complex or action has produced the desired physiological response. In theory, a subject can learn to control his internal organs and vital functions; it might therefore be possible for a patient with essential hypertension to learn how to reduce his/her blood pressure.
The quality of being lifelike in appearance or responses and often refers to dummies used in safety investigations of motor vehicles or in demonstrations of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
A method of cell immobilization in which a microbe population grows in a thin layer of a living or nonliving surface.
1. A generic term for a group of compounds that are widely distributed in plants and that are concerned with maintenance of a normal state of the walls of small blood vessels.
2. A biologically active compound found in the rinds of citrus fruits and some other plants.
A steam fog caused by contact between very cold air and the warm moist air that surrounds human or animal bodies.
biofraud, bio-fraud:
The fraudulent manipulation of data in a biological study or survey; such as, when someone "submits false samples of a threatened species".
1. A solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel that is obtained from biological raw material; the conversion is accomplished through thermochemical or biological methods.
2. Gas such as methane or liquid fuel such as ethanol (ethyl alcohol) made from organic waste material, usually by microbial action.
3. A renewable fuel, e.g., biodiesel, biogas, and methane, that is derived from biological matter.
1. A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide along with traces of other gases, such as nitrogen, hydrogen, and water vapor, that is produced during anaerobic digestion.
2. A combustible gas produced by microbial activity, usually referring to methane produced by microbial fermentation of organic wastes.
biogenesis, biogenetic:
1. A term presented by Thomas Huxley to the principle that life originates from preexisting life only and never from nonliving material.
2. The principle that all living organisms have derived from previously existing living organisms not through spontaneous generation.
1. Produced by the activity of living organisms.
2. That part of biology that seeks to account for the resemblances and the differences in organisms related by descent. It is the science that simply studies in living organisms such genetic phenomena as heredity and evolution, development and variation; whereas the doctrinal movement that tries to anticipate or enforce the practical utilization of the scientific principles studied is eugenics.
Produced by a living organism or resulting from the actions of living organisms; necessary for life processes.
biogenous, biogeny:
1. Originating from life or producing life.
2. Living on or in other organisms.
biogeochemistry, biogeochemical:
1. The branch of biochemistry that deals with the relation of chemicals found in the soil to living organisms; the biological application of geochemistry.
2. The study of the influence of living organisms and life processes on the chemical structure and history of the earth.
3. The study of interactions between the biosphere and its mineral environment, e.g., the study of the effect of living organisms on the weathering of rocks and of the concentration of elements by living systems.
biogeography, biogeographic:
1. The science of the geographical distribution of living things, animal (zoogeography) and vegetable (phytogeography).
2. The study of the geographical distributions of organisms, their habitats (ecological biogeography) and the historical and biological factors that produced them (historical biogeography).
A specialist in biogeography.
That part of the lithosphere within which living organisms can occur.
A sedimentary structure consisting of a fossilized remnant or mark formed in soft sediment by the movement of an animal and pressed in sedimentary rock.
A proposed general term for the “life-sciences”.
1. An instrument for analyzing and rendering visible the movements of animals; used in diagnosis of certain nervous diseases.
2. To make a biograph which is an earlier form of “cinematograph”.
3. To write or prepare a biography.
Of, relating to, or dealing with biography.
1. The history of the lives of individual men and women, as a branch of literature.
2. The written record of the life of an individual. 3. The life-course of a man or other living being; the “life-history” of an animal or plant.
This is the best biography by me I have ever read.
—Lawrence Welk
A biography is a book that is usually written about a dead person because it is so unlike him when he was alive.
—Evan Esar

That field of study dealing with the effect on living organisms (particularly man) of abnormal gravitational effects produced; that is, by acceleration or by free fall; in the former case, heavier than normal weight is induced, and in the latter weightlessness.
biohacker, biohack, biohackerdom:
A hobbyist who tinkers with DNA and other aspects of genetics.

Robotics is hardly the only emergent industry that can expect the embrace of the techno-enthusiast. Maybe bathtub biotech will be next to capture the mindshare of the techie tinkerers. Maybe bioinformatics and the diffusion of genetic engineering technologies and techniques will inspire a new generation of biohackers. Certainly the technologies are there for those inclined to genetically edit their plants or pets. Maybe a mouse or E. coli genome becomes the next operating system for hobbyists to profitably twiddle. Perhaps this decade will bring a Linus Torvalds or Bill Gates of biohackerdom—a hobbyist who turns into an entrepreneur who can simultaneously innovate and market his or her DNA-driven ideas.

— Michael Schrage, Technology Review, June, 2003
1. A potentially dangerous infectious agent such as may be found in a clinical microbiology laboratory or used in experimental studies on genetic recombination.
2. Potential danger from biological sources, as opposed to chemical or mechanical dangers.
3. A risk to human beings or their environment, especially one presented by a toxic or infectious agent.
bioherm, biohermal:
1. A reef, such as a coral reef, formed from organic material.
2. A mound-like accumulation of fossil remains on the site where organisms lived.
3. A mound, dome, or reeflike mass of rock that is composed almost exclusively of the remains of sedentary marine organisms and is embedded in rock of different physical character.
Any limestone formed of debris from a bioherm, often found in reef cores.
Pertaining to the action of water and solutions in living tissue.
1. The study of the interaction between plant and animal life and water cycles.
2. The science of solution action in living tissue.
3. The study of the interactions between water, plants, and animals, including the effects of water on biota as well as the physical and chemical changes in water or its environment produced by biota.
Denoting a prosthesis made of biosynthetic material.
bioinformatics; sometimes spelled, bioinfomatics:
1. The study of the applications of computer and statistical techniques to the management of biological information. In genome projects, bioinformatics includes the development of methods to search databases quickly, to analyze DNA sequence information, and to predict protein sequence and structure from DNA sequence data.
2. The application of computer technology to the management of biological information. Specifically, it is the science of developing computer databases and algorithms to facilitate and expedite biological research, particularly in genomics.
3. A scientific discipline that includes all aspects of the gathering, storing, handling, analyzing, interpreting and the spreading of biological information. It involves powerful computers and innovative programs that handle vast amounts of coding information on genes and proteins from genomics programs. It comprises the development and application of computational algorithms for the purpose of analysis, interpretation, and prediction of data for the design of experiments in the biosciences.
bioinstrument, bioinstrumentation:
1. A sensor or device usually attached to or embedded in the human body or other living animal to record and to transmit physiologic data to a receiving and monitoring station.
2. Devices for recording and transmitting physiological data or to display information about the body’s functions.
1. The study of the growth changes and movements that developing organisms undergo.
2. The science of the movements within developing organisms.
1. The study of the biological underpinnings of language such as the factors that enhance or retard language development and the neurophysiology of language disorders.
2. The study of language functions as related to or derived from biological characteristics of an organism.
The technique of introducing DNA into a cell by firing minute DNA-coated particles (for example, of gold) into the cell using a device powered by pressurized helium (the ballistic gun or “gene gun”).
Any rock or group of minerals formed from organic material or by the action of organisms.
1. A rock of organic origin.
2. A rock that is formed from or by organic material, either by noncombustible, inorganic processes that form an acaustobiolith, or by combustible, organic processes that form a caustobiolith (a combustible organic rock).
Any limestone of an organic nature such as a reef rock or stromatolite.
Pertaining to living organisms or life processes.
biologicals, biologic:
Medicinal preparations made from living organisms and their products, including serums, vaccines, antigens, antitoxins, etc.
biologism, biologistic:
The interpretation of human life from a strictly biological point of view.
A specialist or expert in biology or one who studies biology.
The intelligent power displayed in organic activities.
biology, biologic, biological:
1. The science concerned with the phenomena of life and living
2. The science of physical life; the division of physical science that deals with organized beings or animals and plants, their morphology, physiology, origin, and distribution.
3. The study of human life and living.
bioluminescence, bioluminescent:
1. The emission of light by living organisms; also, the light so produced.
2. Light produced by certain organisms from the oxidation of luciferins through the action of luciferases and with negligible production of heat, chemical energy being converted directly into light energy.
3. The generation and emission of light by living organisms such as fireflies, some bacteria and fungi, and many marine animals.
1. Chemical decomposition of organic matter brought about by bacteria, etc.
2. Disintegration of organic matter through the chemical action of living organisms.
1. Life destroying or destructive to life.
2. Related to biolysis.
substance of large molecular weight; for example, protein, DNA, etc.
Animal magnetism.
The deliberate manipulation of the species composition of an ecosystem; such as, to try to regenerate a hypereutrophic lake after the organic pollution itself has been ameliorated.
1. A measurable indicator of a disease, or of vulnerability to a disease, that may or may not be causal. The term includes molecular, genetic, immunologic, and physiologic signals of events in biological systems that may appear in any of the various steps along the causation pathway of a disorder.
2. In toxicology, a physiological or pharmacological measure that is used to predict a toxic event in an animal.
1. The total weight of all living things in a given area, biotic community, species population, or habitat; a measure of total biotic productivity.
2. The total weight of the organic substance (as plankton) or organisms in a given area; measured as volume, mass (live, dead, dry or ash-free weight) or energy (calories); standing crop.
3. In ecology, a plant material or vegetation that can be converted to useful fuel and that is considered as a potential energy source.
1. The total weight of all living things in a given area, biotic community, species population, or habitat; a measure of total biotic productivity.
2. The total weight of the organic substance (as plankton) or organisms in a given area; measured as volume, mass (live, dead, dry or ash-free weight) or energy (calories); standing crop.
3. Material that can safely be implanted into the human body and left there without causing an adverse reaction.
1. The total complex of biotic communities occupying and characterizing a particular geographic area or zone.
2. A biotic community of plants and animals; specifically, such a community in a prehistoric period.
3. A biogeographical region or formation; a major regional ecological community characterized by distinctive life forms and principal plant (terrestrial biomes) or animal (marine biomes) species.
4. A climatically controlled group of plants and animals of a characteristic composition and distributed over a wide area, such as tropical rainforest, tundra, temperate grassland, desert, savanna, mountain habitats, taiga (a northern coniferous forest zone, especially in Siberia, adjacent to tundra), and other northern coniferous forests, etc.
biomechanics, biomechanical:
1. The science concerned with the action of forces, internal or external, on the living body.
2. The study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement or structure of living organisms.
3. The study of body movements and of the forces acting on the musculoskeletal system.
1. Pertaining to those aspects of the natural sciences, especially the biologic and physiologic sciences, that relate to or underlie medicine.
2. Biological and medical, i.e., encompassing both the science(s) and the art of medicine.
3. A reference to or relating to both biology and medicine.
1. That branch of medicine dealing with functioning and survival of people in abnormal environments, especially in space.
2. Clinical medicine based on the principles of the natural sciences (biology, biochemistry, biophysics, etc.) to solve medical problems.
biomembrane, biomembranous:
1. A structure bounding a cell or cell organelle; it contains lipids, proteins, glycolipids, steroids, etc.
2. Any membrane, such as a cell membrane of an organism.
1. Study of the effects of atmospheric conditions (weather) on living ortganisms.
2. That branch of ecology that deals with the effects on living organisms of the extraorganic aspects of the physical environment (such as temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, rate of air flow, and air ionization). It considers not only natural atmosphere but also artificially created atmospheres such as those to be found in buildings and shelters, and in closed ecological systems, such as satellites and submarines.
1. A device for measuring carbon dioxide given off by organisms and, hence, for determining the quantity of living matter present.
2. An instrument by which minute quantities of carbon dioxide can be measured; used in measuring the carbon dioxide given off from functioning tissue.
One who specializes in the science of biometry.
1. The science of measuring physical characteristics, to verify a person’s identity which includes voice recognition, iris and face scans, and fingerprint recognition. This definition is a recent application from the tech world [a recently created application]. This sense of biometrics should not be confused with the much older sense, which refers to the application of statistical and mathematical methods for data analysis in the biological sciences. Also known as biometry (as shown in the next word group), this use of the term has been in the language since the early 1900s.
2. Quantification of psychopathological differences between subjects, specifically by assessing each subject across multiple dimensions. In psychiatry, those dimensions include sensation, perception, cognition, learning, psychophysiological reactions, and personality traits and characteristics.
1. The application of statistical methods to the study of numerical data based on biological observations and phenomena.
2. The measurement of life; the calcuation of the average duration and expectation of life.
3. The application of mathematics to biology, especially the study of resemblances between living things by statistical methods.
A limestone composed of skeletal remains in a matrix of carbonate mud.
A microscope for examining living tissue in the body.
1. Microscopic examination of living tissue in the body.
2. Examination of the cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor, and retina by use of a slitlamp combined with a binocular microscope.
1. Biomicrite in which the carbonate-mud matrix has recrystallized to microspar.
2. Microsparite containing fossil fragments or fossils.
Biomicrite containing fragments or whole fossils greater than one millimeter in diameter.
A branch of biology that uses information from biological systems to develop synthetic systems.
Manufacturing principles and practices that mimic natural materials or processes.
Relating to a substance or process that uses biomimicry.
1. The process by which organisms produce skeletal structures containing crystalline or amorphous inorganic substances.
2. The production of partly or wholly mineralized internal or external structures by living organisms.
1. A compound that occurs as a component of a living organism, such as a protein or nucleic acid.
2. A molecule of a compound produced by or important to a biological organism.
In the environment, a method of testing water quality at a site by using living organisms.
biomorph, biomorphic:
A decorative form representing a living object; a life form often used in primitive art.
An apparatus for producing artificial respiration.
1. A living thing; an individual living organism.
2. A living unit including not only cells but also viruses. [There is some confusion among biologists who say the term is considered synonymous with “individual” and by others as a variant spelling of “biome”. There is further confusion in the literature with “biont”.]
The instinctual ability of some animals to return to a given site without the use of landmarks, as birds to their roosts or salmon to spawning streams.
1. Physiologic or normal death of cells or tissues as a result of changes associated with development, aging, or use.
2. Necrosis of a small area of tissue. Also, necrobiosis.
A personality constellation in which one or more part of the processes disturb the total function of the organism. In an entirely healthy organism, the various part processes are integrated in such a way that they subserve and promote the total function of the organism, while in an abnormal condition the integration is impaired and one or more part impedes or disturbs instead of promoting the total function.
Life force; the force exercised in the living organism.
The merger of biological and economic theory.
Of or pertaining to bionics; having or being an artificial, especially electromechanical, device that replaces parts of the body; having ordinary human capabilities increased (as if) by the aid of such devices.
2. Having superhuman strength, speed, or intensity.
1. The science of biologic functions and mechanisms as applied to electronic chemistry; such as computers, employing various aspects of physics, mathematics, and chemistry; e.g., improving cybernetic engineering by reference to the organization of the vertebrate nervous system.
2. The science of applying the knowledge gained by studying the characteristics of living organisms to the formulation of nonorganic devices and techniques.
3. The study of biological functions and mechanisms from the point of view of applying them to electronic devices, such as computers.
bionomic(s), bionomical:
1. Of or pertaining to the conditions under which an organism lives in its natural habitat; of or pertaining to bionomics.
2. The branch of biology that deals with the mode of life of organisms in their natural habitat, their adaptation to their surroundings, etc.; ecology.
bionomy, bionomics:
The laws of life; the science concerned with the laws regulating vital functions.
1. An individual organism.
2. A living thing.
The study of the biological applications of radioactive and rare stable isotopes.
The study of the flora and fauna of oceans in relation to their marine environments.
bio-organic, bioorganic:
Used to describe a carbon-based (organic) compound produced by a living organism or of biological importance.
biopack, biopak:
A container used to keep a living organism during space flight and to monitor its physiological functions.
A natural parent.
Toxins which have been developed from plants or other living organisms that kill insects.
An organism that derives the nourishment for its existence from another living organism.
biophagy, biophagism:
Deriving nourishment from living organisms; biophagy.
Feeding on living organisms; a reference to certain parasites.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug, and its dosage form, as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of drug action.
Growing pharmaceuticals by using genetically modified plants. Biopharming, in which genes for pharmacologically active agents are inserted and grown in crops such as potatoes, is a rapidly expanding area. Similar experiments are also taking place with animals. Genetically altered cows and goats can produce milk containing human proteins that can then be separated from the milk and used for therapeutics.
The science that applies the laws and methods of physics to the study of biological processes (used with a singular verb).
biophile, biophilia:
1. Someone who has a desire or instinct for self-preservation.
2. In biochemistry, any element occurring in living organisms or organic matter, such as carbon, oxygen, or nitrogen.
biophilia, biophilism, biophily:
1. The instinct of self-preservation.
2. A belief that animals have rights that human beings should respect. This should really be zoophilia, et al.
Thriving on other living organisms, often used specifically of plant parasites.
A hypothetical unit (the ultimate component parts of protoplasm or the ultracellular units ranking between the molecule and the cell).
The production and emission of light by plants or by animals; bioluminescence.
The hypothetical process of splitting water by solar energy to produce hydrogen.
An obsolete instrument once used for measuring the rate and degree of dark adaptation, as in vitamin A deficiency.
biophylaxis, biophylactic:
Nonspecific defense reactions of the body, e.g., phagocytosis, vascular and other reactions of inflammatory processes.
1. The science dealing with the mechanical and electrical properties of the parts of a living organism.
2. The study of biological processes and materials by means of the theories and tools of physics.
3. The study of physical processes (e.g., electricity, luminescence) occurring in organisms.
Structural or descriptive biology.
One who investigates the physiology of living beings.
That part of biology that includes organogeny, morphology, and physiology.
A plant that feeds on other living organisms; a parasitic or predatory plant; or plants that get sustenance from living organisms.
The patenting of plants, genes, and other biological products that are indigenous to a foreign country; for example, some developing tropical nations are saying that if the West cries foul over piracy of intellectual property or computer software, then biopiracy in Western labs of jungle extracts should also be considered a high economic crime.
bioplasm, bioplasmic:
Protoplasm, especially in its relation to living processes and development. Protoplasm is the viscid, translucent, polyphasic colloid with water as the continuous phase that makes up the essential material of all plant and animal cells.
A functional independent mass of living protoplasm.
biopoesis, biopoeic:
1. The (hypothetical) origin or evolution of living or lifelike structures from lifeless matter; abiogenesis.
2. The origin of life, including the abiotic synthesis of macromolecular systems and the transformation (eobiogenesis) of these systems into the first living organisms (eobionts).
1. A macromolecule occurring in a living organism such as a protein, polysaccharide, or nucleic acid.
2. Biodegradable polymer produced by living organisms; for example, polysaccharide gums (xanthans) produced by the bacterium Xanthomonas.
The capability of or extent to which a chemical substance, such as a hormone, acts within a biological system.
Any method for producing commercially useful biological material.
biopsy, bioptic:
1. Examination of tissue, etc., removed from the living body; also, the removal of such tissue.
2. The process of removing tissue from living patients for diagnostic examination.
3. A specimen obtained by biopsy.
Of or relating to a biopsy.
Pertaining to mental phenomena in their relations to the living organism.
An interdisciplinary area of study involving psychology, biology, physiology, biochemistry, the neural sciences, and related fields.
Involving interplay of biological, psychological, and social influences.
A culture made from purulent (pus) exudate (fluid) in which various cells, including the phagocytes, are still viable.
Based on biological principles; having an effect by natural means; said, for example of such pesticidal agents as viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, or naturally occurring biochemicals.
1. A microorganism that, through its biochemical reactions, can produce medically or commercially useful materials, e.g., beer from fermentation of yeast or insulin from genetically altered bacteria.
2. A large tank for growing microorganisms used in industrial production.
A unique area with distinctive soils, landforms, climates, and indigenous plants and animals.
1. The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug, and its dosage form, as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of drug action.
2. The use of biological means to restore or clean up contaminated land, e.g., by adding bacteria and other organisms that consume or neutralize contaminants in the soil.
Research in the biological sciences.
1. The science concerned with deformation (process of adapting in shape or form) and flow in biological systems.
2. The study of the deformation and flow of matter in living systems and in materials directly derived from them.
biorhythm, biorhythms, biorhythmic:
1. Supposed regular cycles in human physiological processes that affect emotions and behavior.
2. A biologically inherent cyclic variation or recurrence of an event or state, such as the sleep cycle, circadian rhythms, or periodic diseases.
3. An endogenous cyclic variation in some aspect of an organism’s bodily functioning, as the daily cycle of sleeping and waking, or the annual cycle of dormancy and activity in some animals; specifically each of three alleged cycles of different periods involving a person’s physical, emotional, and intellectual activity, as used to explain or predict behavior.
One who advocates or employs biorhythmics.
Obsolete term for the making of x-ray pictures of subjects in motion.
A reference to systems suitable for making deserts economically useful.
An artificial satellite containing living organisms, or even humans, for experimental purposes.
1. A collective term for the biological sciences including physics, chemistry, etc. wherein all are applicable.
2. A science that studies structures, functions, interactions, or other aspects of living organisms.
A specialist in any of the life sciences, e.g. biology, ecology, physiology, or molecular biology.
1. A view or survey of life.
2. An earlier form of cinematograph.
1. Device to monitor and to transmit information about biological processes; such as, the effect of motion on an animal in space.
2. An apparatus for detecting chemical or physical signals that provide information about specific biological activities. Blood pressure or heart monitors and systems that use live organisms are types of biosensors.
A succession of changes of any single heritable character.
Plankton, nekton, and suspended organic particulate matter derived from living organisms; the biological component of seston (the total particulate matter or separate particles that are suspended in water).
Life, in a general sense; vitality.
Osmosis through a living membrane.
Of or pertaining to the interaction of biological and social factors; relating to both biology and sociology.
Structural and functional units in cytoplasm; such as, chondriosomes, chromidia and plastids.
1. The use of ultrasonic instruments to analyze and map parts of the body.
2. The use by certain animals of echoes of sounds they produce to locate objects in the perceptual field as with bats as they move around.
Spectroscopic determination of the types and amounts of various substances in living tissue or fluid from a living body.
1. The study of organisms whose natural habitat is wholly or partly subterranean.
2. The study of the fauna of caves.
1. A biological species.
2. A species defined primarily on biological characters.
biosphere, biospheric:
1. The regions of the earth’s crust and atmosphere that are occupied by living organisms; occasionally, the living organisms themselves.
2. The realm or sphere or life in which the total biological process takes place. The biosphere includes both the individual and his/her environment not as interacting parts of constituents that have an independent existence, but as aspects of a single reality that can be mentally separated only by abstraction.
A composting system that tumbles moistened soil waste in a drum until the waste biodegrades into a fine dark compost.
The capacity of an organism to tolerate changes in its environment without undergoing adaptive change itself.
A vessel in which the biomass of a continuous culture is monitored by parameters other than turbidity.
1. The science of the relation between structure and function in organisms.
2. The study of the structure of organisms in relation to their functions, as opposed to biodynamics.
1. The science of statistics applied to biological or medical data.
2. Vital statistics; the numerical representation of conditions associated with life.
Three-dimensional measurement of the body utilizing two stereo cameras to make bodygrams, used in medical diagnosis and anthropological research.
biostitute (bigh AWS tuh toot), biostitution (bigh AWS tuh too" shuhn):
A biologist who supports a company or activity that is harmful to the environment. This inflammatory term is a blend of the words biologist and prostitute. Biostitutes refers to scientists who are working for certain polluting industries and who lie and deceive the American public by saying there's no such thing as global warming as a result of polluting by industrial output.
biostratigraphy, biostratigraphic:
The study and classification of rock strata based on their fossil content; stratigraphic paleontology.
The study of the relationship between fossils and their environments.
An accumulation of fossils that are distinctly bedded but do not form a mound-like or reef-like structure (bioherm); a fossil bed having no pronounced topographical relief.
biosynthesis, biosynthetic:
1. Formation of a chemical compound by enzymes, either in the organism (in vivo) or by fragments or extracts of cells (in vitro).
2. The production of organic compounds by living organisms.
A living organism or any complete system of living things that can, directly or indirectly, interact with others.
1. A botanical term designating the systematic study of populations and species, especially by means of ecological or experimental methods.
2. The study of the relationships among groups of species using criteria such as morphology, biochemistry, and DNA comparisons, especially to determine the evolutionary history of a species (used with a singular verb).
A collective term for the total animal (fauna) and plant (flora) life of a region.
biotaxy, biotaxis, biotactic:
1. The directed reaction of a motile organism towards (positive) or away from (negative) a biological stimulus.
2. The classification of living beings according to their anatomical characteristics.
biotechnology, biotech:
1. The branch of technology concerned with the development and exploitation of machines in relation to the various needs of human beings.
2. The branch of technology concerned with modern forms of industrial production utilizing living organisms, especially micro-organisms, and their biological processes.
3. The field devoted to applying the techniques of biochemistry, cellular biology, biophysics, and molecular biology to addressing issues related to human beings and the environment.
4. The use of living things or parts of living things to create or modify drugs and other substances; to modify food crops and other macroscopic organisms; or to adapt microorganisms to agricultural, medical, or other purposes.
1. Study of the behavior and activity of organisms using remote detection and transmission equipment; radio tracking.
2. The technique of monitoring vital processes and transmitting data without wires to a point remote from the subject.
Bioterror is the use of biological agents for terrorism. The term bioterror is often used loosely to describe nuclear, biological, and/or chemical (NBC) terrorism. The U.S. government is especially worried about the Big Six bioterrorism threats: anthrax, smallpox, plague, tularemia, botulism toxin and viral hemorrhagic fevers (like the Ebola virus). While less well-known than the other diseases, tularemia and botulism toxins could conceivably be aerosolized, causing severe respiratory illness and paralysis, respectively.
A terrorist who uses biological weapons. Not only water supplies are susceptible to deliberate contamination; so too is much of the air we breathe. Skyscrapers, tunnels, subways, and their requisite heating and air-conditioning systems provide targets and also avenues of attack for would-be bioterrorists.
An obsolete term for suicide.
Pertaining to the inter-relationship of temperature and living organisms.
biotherapy, biotherapeutics:
1. Treatment using biological agents, almost always those made by genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is central to modern biotherapy’s backbone: pharmaceutical biotechnology. Pharmaceutical biotechnology involves using microorganisms, macroscopic organisms, or hybrids of tumor cells and leukocytes.
2. Virtually all biotherapeutic agents in clinical use are biotech pharmaceuticals. A biotech pharmaceutical is simply any medically useful drug whose manufacture involves microorganisms or substances that living organisms produce (e.g., enzymes). Most biotech pharmaceuticals are recombinant—that is, produced by genetic engineering. Insulin was among the earliest recombinant drugs.
3. In psychology, any form of treatment for abnormal behavior that alters the individual’s physiological processes; such as, electric shock treatment or surgery.
4. The treatment of disease with biologicals, that is, materials produced by living organisms.
An instrument for measuring the vibratory-perception threshold.
1. A reference to common life; secular.
2. Pertaining to life or living organisms; caused by, produced by, or comprising living organisms.
The science concerned with the functions of life, or vital activity and force.
biotome, biotomy:
1. The study of animal and plant structure by dissection; vivisection.
2. A biopsy instrument passed through a catheter into the heart to obtain pieces of tissue for diagnosis.
1. The smallest geographical area providing uniform conditions for life; the physical part of an ecosystem.
2. The smallest geographical unit of the biosphere or of a habitat that can be delimited by convenient boundaries and is characterized by its biota.
3. The location of a parasite within the host’s body.
4. An ecological niche, or restricted area, the environmental conditions of which are suitable for certain fauna and flora. A tree with its associated organisms is a biotope; a forest is a biochore.
An intoxication resulting from a plant or animal poison (biotoxin).
The study of poisons produced by living organisms, their cause, detection, and their effects, and of the treatment of those conditions produced by them.
Any toxic substance formed in an animal body, and demonstrable in its tissues or body fluids, or both.
1. The conversion of molecules from one form to another within an organism, often associated with change in pharmacologic activity; refers especially to drugs and other xenobiotics. Also, biodegradation..
2. The change of one chemical into another while within a living organism.
The study of the body by means of its reactions to chemical substances.
1. A chamber with controlled climate; used in experiments to determine the effects of environment on organisms.
2. A place in a laboratory in which temperature and other environmental conditions can be controlled.
biotroph, biotrophic, biotrophy:
1. A reference to a parasite deriving nutrients from the tissues of a living host.
2. An organism that can live and multiply only on another living organism; such as, parasitic or symbiotic bacteria and fungi, carnivores, herbivores, etc.
An obsolete term for a theory that a drug eruption may be due to activation of a latent allergy by the drug.
The mixing of a sediment by the burrowing, feeding, or other activity of living organisms.
In biology, a group with the same genetic constitution that is characteristic in a species.
The study of anthropological types with their constitutional variations, inadequacies, etc.
1. The use of ultrasonics for biological applications; such as, ultrasonic medical tomography, ultrasonic microscopy, and physical therapy.3
2. The study of the interaction of sound at frequencies above about 20 000 hertz with living systems.
A group (infrasubspecific) of bacterial strains distinguishable from other strains of the same species on the basis of physiological characters. Formerly called biotype.
1. In terms of time, the period of existence of a species.
2. In lithic terms, an abstract zone that includes all strata deposited during the period of time that a given taxon lived.
3. The range of a single taxonomic entity in geologic time as reflected by its occurrence in fossiliferous rocks.
A form of symbiosis in which one species becomes temporarily the guest of another.
Used up while carrying on of the vital processes other than growth, or in the performance of function, referring to the energy derived from food.
The study of the deleterious effects of time on a living system.
A combustible organic rock, such as coal peat, of plant origin.
Study devoted to elucidation of correlations between the chemical constitution of various materials and their ability to modify the function and morphology of biological systems.
cenobium, coenobium:
Used to describe plant or animal organisms occurring in colonies of discrete individuals.
That aspect of biology concerned with the timing of biological events, especially repetitive or cyclic phenomena in individual organisms.
A form of symbiosis based on theft, best known in ants in which one species will systematically steal the collected food of another laboring species.
coprobiont, coprobiontic:
Any animal (coprozoite) or plant (coprophyte) living or feeding on dung.
The study of the effects of low temperatures on living organisms.
1. The condition in which all external signs of metabolic activity are absent from a dormant organism.
2. The condition of an organism that must in theory have at one time existed, but that has left no fossil traces.
cryptobios, cryptobiotic:
A reference to organisms that are typically hidden or concealed in crevices or under stones.
dark biology:
Scientific research related to biological weapons. The phrase dark biology was coined by the science writer and novelist Richard Preston in his self-described "trilogy on dark biology": The Hot Zone (1994), The Cobra Event (1997), and The Demon In the Freezer (2002).
A plant flowering or bearing fruit twice in a season.
The conditions pertaining to a mode of life within a specific habitat.
ectosymbiosis, ectosymbiont:
Symbiosis in which one symbiont lives on the outside of the body of the other.
Inhibition of, or interference with, one species or population by the action of another.
Used of organisms that live within the substratum.
Either the condition of an organism that lives within another (usually with the connotation of parasitism) or the condition of those benthic organisms that live in the surface of bottom mud.
Living as a parasite within the host.
The science of hygienic living.
endosymbiosis, endosymbiont, endosymbiotic:
Symbiosis in which one symbiont lives within the body of another as green algae in Hydra or Convoluta.
The transformation of prebiotic macromolecular systems into the first living organisms (eobionts).
1. An organism that lives on the body surface of another without feeding upon its host, as in many mosses and lichens.
2. The earliest known living organisms developed from some prebiotic macromolecular precursors.
epibiontic, epibiotic, epibiont:
Living attached to another organism without any connotation of mutualism. Urchins and grazing fishes feed on epibionts of reefs and often scrape off bits of calcium carbonate; resulting in bioerosion.
Either the condition of those organisms that live on the surface of another organism or those benthic organisms that live on the surface of bottom mud.
Living attached to another organism; such as, fungus.
A specialist in the science of desert life.
The study, or science, of desert life.
Living in desert regions.
That part of the biosphere in which the physiological processes of living organisms can occur; comprising the allobiosphere and autobiosphere.
A reference to an organism tolerating a wide range of a particular environmental factor.
1. One who studies life that originates on the outside, or exterior, of an organism.
2. One who studies extraterrestrial life.
A branch of biology with a special interest in the search for life on other planets and elesewhere in the universe, and with the study of conditions that might give rise to extraterrestrial life, as well as the study of the effects of extraterrestrial environments.
Living on the exterior of a substrate (substratum) [base to which a stationary animal or a plant is fixed] or the outside of an organism.
One who studies the biosphere.
The study of the biosphere.
A plant that is associated with dry land.
geobiont, geobiontic:
An organism spending its whole life in the soil.
The total life of the land; that part of the Earth’s surface occupied by terrestrial organisms; terrestrial life.
The study of animals in the absence of contaminating microorganisms; i.e., of “germ-free” animals.
A condition in which animals are sterile both internally and externally, or of the procedures used to secure and maintain these conditions.
Living colonies or species, assembled from pure isolates (separations).
An individual organism from a group assembled from pure isolates or separations from other organisms. Also, gnotobiota.
Denoting germ-free or formerly germ-free organisms in which the composition of any associated microbial flora, if present, is fully defined.
halobios, halobiotic:
The total life of the sea; that part of the Earth’s surface occupied by marine organisms.
An association of marine plants.
halobiont, halobiontic:
A marine organism or an organism living in a saline habitat.
Living in marshes.
A condition of being an obligate (obligatory) endobiont and specifically that of a parasitic fungus that produces spores within the host tissue.
The condition of a parasite that can exist both inside and outside the host.
A reference to a symbiotic association of several members, particularly of a lichen containing several species of algae.
Holophyte or any green, phototrophic, independent plant.
The condition of being an obligate endobiont and specifically that of a parasitic fungus which produces spores within the host tissue.
The study of life in aquatic habitats.
The sum total of all aquatic life; that part of the Earth’s surface occupied by aquatic organisms.
The development of living organisms, as bacteria, in fluid media; the conditions of life of such organisms.
A condition of those benthic organisms that live under surface structures such as domes and other similar situations.
The use of information technology to make new biological discoveries and to improve collaboration among scientists. The i-biology approach represents the consolidation of the many diverse data in life science research into refined information. In contrast to bioinformatics, which represents solely computational biology, i-biology stands for an integrated approach, bringing applied scientists and bioinformaticians together."
kleptobiosis, kleptobiotic, kleptobiotic, cleptobiosis, cleptobiotic, cleptobiotic:
1. Among ants and certain other social insects, an association in which a small species feeds on the refuse of a neighbouring nest inhabited by a larger species, or robs returning workers of the host species of the food they are carrying.
2. An interspecific association found in some social organisms in which one species steals food from the stores of another species but does not live or nest in close proximity to it. Also known as lestobiosis.
An extract from peach kernels, the composition of which has not been fully described but which gained notoriety in the 1960’s and 1970’s as a dubious but exploited remedy for cancer; currently not regarded as effective.
The same as cleptobiosis.
limnobiology, limnobiologic:
1. The biology (study of life forms) of lakes and ponds.
2. The study of organisms living in lakes, ponds, and other standing freshwater bodies.
An association of organisms in a lake.
limnobiont, limnobiontic:
A freshwater organism.
The total life of fresh waters; that part of the Earth’s surface occupied by freshwater organisms.
1. The population of organisms of a size larger than a few centimeters in any habitat or ecosystem (especially applied to soil).
2. Large soil organisms, exceeding about 40-50 mm in length.
macrobiote, macrobiotic:
1. Tending to prolong life; relating to the prolongation of life.
2. The science of prolonging life.
macrobiotics, macrobiotic:
The study of the prolongation or extension of life; long-lived.
The larger of two symbionts.
medicobiologic, medicobiological:
Pertaining to the biologic aspects of medicine.
Soil organisms of intermediate size, from about 40-50 mm in length to a size just visible with the aid of a hand lens (magnifier).
A many-celled organism (metaphyte and metazoon).
Either a condition of symbiosis in which one symbiont sets the stage for the arrival of the other or a mutual association of two organisms of which one is thought to benefit without detriment to the other.
1. Dependence of one organism on another for its existence.
2. A relationship between two organisms in which only one of the partners benefits.
A microaerophilic micro-organism.
Any micro-organism; especially, a bacterium. Also: a micro-organism.
Caused by micro-organisms.
A microbe.
One who specializes in the science of microbiology.
microbiology, microbiologic:
The science concerned with micro-organisms, including fungi, protozoa, bacteria, and viruses.
Destruction or lysis of micro-organisms by a phage.
microbiota, microbiotic:
1. Microscopic soil organisms not visible with the aid of a hand lens (magnifier).
2. Flora and fauna composed of microscopical organisms.
Applied to one symbiont that is noticeably smaller than the other.
The fungal partner of a lichen (algal, fungal symbiosis).
The fungal flora of an area or habitat.
myrmecosymbiosis, myrmecosymbiotic:
A symbiosis between an ant and its host plant.
necrobiosis, necrobiotic:
1. The process of decay or death in tissues of the body; the gradual degeneration and death of a part through suspended or imperfect nutrition; an instance of this.
2. Physiologic or normal death of cells or tissues as a result of changes associated with development, aging, or use.
The theory that life can originate from nonliving matter.
The biology of the nervous system.
The theory that nerve cell bodies may move toward, or their axons may grow toward, the area from which they receive the most stimuli.
A rarely used term for correct living, both hygienically and morally.
The presence of larvae and the characteristic spiny nymphs of Otobius megnini in the external auditory canal of cattle, horses, cats, dogs, deer, coyotes, and other domestic and wild animals; they may remain in the ear for several months before dropping out to pupate and mature. Several records of human infection are known.
One who studies or is a specialist in the science of extinct plants, animals, and micro-organisms.
The study of the biology of extinct plants, animals, and micro-organisms.
parabiosis, parabiotic:
1. Fusion of whole eggs or embryos, as occurs in conjoined twins.
2. Surgical joining of the vascular systems of two organisms.
3. Either the condition of living together, applied variously to mixtures of species of similar habit as man and the rat or to the union of two individual animals; or the condition of symbiosis between two species of ant in which colonies of neighboring nests are contiguous but do not mingle.
When one symbiont damages another. It is similar to parasitism.
Pathology with emphasis more on the biological than on the medical aspects.
petrobiont, petrobiontic:
Living on or among rocks or stones.
The study of the effects of light on living things.
Living or flourishing only (exclusively) in light.
The algal component of a lichen; any alga that is associated with a fungus to form a lichen.
A friendly association between ants and termites.
The study of leaves.
The biology of plants.
probiosis, probiotic:
An association of two organisms that enhances the life processes of both.
Living in sand; living interstitially between or attached to sand particles.
The study of the interrelationships of biology and psychology in cognitive functioning, including intellectual, memory, and related neurocognitive processes.
The study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation upon living tissue.
saprobiont, saprobiontic:
Feeding on dead or decaying organic matter.
A specialist in sociobiology.
The study of the biological and genetic basis of social organization and social behavior and their evolution in animals, a field of study that has caused controversy when applied to human social behavior and organization.
A reference to an organism requiring a stable uniform habitat.
symbiosis, symbiotic, symbiotical, symbiotism:
1. Living together, social life.
2. Association of two different organisms (usually two plants, or an animal and a plant) which live attached to each other, or one as a tenant of the other, and contribute to each other’s support. Also more widely, any intimate association of two or more different organisms, whether mutually beneficial or not.
3. The biological association of two or more species to their mutual benefit.
4. The mutual cooperation or interdependence of two persons, as mother and infant, or husband and wife; sometimes used to denote excessive or pathological interdependence of two persons.
symbiote, symbiont, symbion:
An organism associated with another in symbiosis; a symbiotic organism.
symbiotrophy, symbiotrophic:
1. Obtaining nourishment through symbiosis.
2. A reference to an organism obtaining nourishment through a symbiotic relationship.
An adventitious, and frequently temporary, association between two species of ants.
thamnobiontic, thamnobiont:
Living in bushes and shrubs.
thanatobiology, thanatobiologic:
Relating to the proceses involved in life and death.
The study of the effects of heat on living organisms and biological processes.
Thriving at relatively high temperatures; such as, certain bacteria. Also known as thermophil or thermophilic.
triphibious, triphibiously:
Capable of living or operating on land, on water, and in the air; specifically of or pertaining to military operations involving land, sea, and air forces.
A cave-dwelling organism.
Symbiosis in insects in which food is obtained from one species (the trophobiont) by another in return for protection.
Inhabiting or living in bogs.
1. Not in accord with the findings of biology.
2. Not such as occurs in the course of nature or as studied in biology.
A form of symbiosis among ants in which two colonies of different species live together on friendly terms without rearing their broods in common.
1. A pharmacologically, endocrinologically, or toxicologically active substance not endogenously produced and therefore foreign to an organism.
2. A foreign organic chemical; a reference to environmental pollutants such as pesticides in runoff water.
The condition of a parasitic fungus that infests an animal.

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