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laparo-, lapar- (Greek: the soft part of the body between the ribs and the hip, flank, loin; denotes the flank or loins and the abdominal wall).

Sometimes this element is used loosely (even incorrectly) in reference to the abdomen in general.

Incision of the bladder through the abdominal wall.
1. The division of the abdominal walls in order to reach a strangulated hernia that has been returned so that the constricting part may be divided.
2. Laparotomyfor correction of hernia.
Incision of the vagina with entry into the cul-de-sac through the abdominal wall.
1. An excision or cutting out of a portion of the intestine at the side.
2. Excision of strips or gores from the abdominal wall and suture of the edges of the wounds, in cases of abnormal laxity of the abdominal muscles.
An abdominal or ventral hernia.
Cholecystectomy; surgical removal of the gall bladder through the abdominal wall.
Colectomy; excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon.
Surgical creation of a permanent opening into the colon through an incision in the anterolateral wall of the abdomen; colostomy.
Colotomy; incision into the colon for removal of a foreign body, polyp, or other benign tumor.
Incision of the vagina with entry into the cul-de-sac by way of the abdomen.
Removal of a cyst by an abdominal incision.
Suprapubic cystotomy or the operation of cutting into the bladder by an incision just above the pubic symphysis through the abdominal wall.
Laparotomy with removal of the contents of a cyst.
Surgical creation of an artificial opening into the intestine through the abdominal wall.
Laparotomy with incision into the intestine.
Examination of the interior of the stomach through an abdominal incision.
Inspection of the interior of the stomach after a gastrotomy.
Surgical creation of a permanent gastric fistula through the abdominal wall.
Incision of the liver through the abdominal wall.
Abdominal hysterectomy; removal of the uterus through an opening in the abdominal wall.
laparohystero-oophorectomy: Removal of the uterus and ovaries through an incision in the abdominal wall.

An abdominal hysteropexy; the fixation of a displaced uterus by a surgical operation.
laparohysterosalpingo-oophorectomy: Removal of uterus and adnexa (uterine tubes and ovaries) through an abdominal incision.

An abdominal hysterotomy; laparotomy with incision of the uterus.
Laparatomy with incision of the ileum.
A "monster", a single-bodied set of twins that is double above but single below the pelvis.
Inflammation of the abdominal or lumbar muscles.
An abdominal myomectomy; surgical removal of a uterine myoma (leiomyoma) through an abdominal incision.
Inflammation of the lateral abdominal muscles.
Removal of a kidney by an incision in the loin.
laparorrhaphy, laparorrhagia:
Celiorrhaphy; the repair or strengthening of the abdominal wall by means of sutures.
1. Abdominal salpingectomy; removal of a uterine tube through an abdominal incision.
2. An opening into an oviduct made through an abdominal incision.
laparosalpingo-oophorectomy: Removal of the fallopian tube and ovary through an abdominal incision.

Abdominal salpingotomy.
Any instrument used in examining the abdomen; now specifically one in the form of a tube for insertion into the peritoneal cavity in laparoscopy, having a source of light at the inserted end and an optical system for forming at the other end an image of the illuminated region; an endoscope for examining the peritoneal cavity.
Visual examination of the interior of the peritoneal cavity with a laparoscope inserted into it through the abdominal wall or the vagina.

The laparoscope is a type of endoscope, the earliest of which, dating from 150 years ago, was a crude tube down which lamplight was reflected. With the advent of fiberoptics in the 1960's and of high-intensity, low-heat, halogen bulbs in the 1970's, endoscopy became clinically practical.

Typically, in laparoscopy, the abdomen is first inflated with carbon dioxide, and the laparoscope passed through a small incision in the abdominal wall. The device is frequently used to view the female reproductive organs, in particular where endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease is thought to be present, or infertility is suspected because of obstruction of the fallopian tubes by scarring (adhesions).

Fitted with grasping and cutting tools, the laparoscope can perform minor surgery, take tissue samples for biopsy, and remove eggs from the ovaries (as in gamete intrafallopian transfer). Often done on an ambulatory basis, laparoscopy is among the new techniques that have revolutionized modern surgery.

Stedman's Medical Dictionary
(Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins, 1984).

Laparotomy with excision of the spleen.
Laparotomy to gain access to the spleen, usually for the purpose of draining a cyst or abscess of the spleen.
Munchausen syndrome in which the patient desires abdominal surgery.
An instrument (knife, etc.) for performing laparotomy.
1. Cutting through the abdominal walls into the cavity of the abdomen; incision into the loin.
2. Surgical incision through the flank; less correctly, but more generally, abdominal section at any point to gain access to the peritoneal cavity.
A low cervical cesarean section.
Incision into the cecum through the flank.
Abdominal hysterotomy; incision of the uterus through a surgical opening in the abdomen.
Abdominovaginal; a reference to the abdomen and vagina.
Technique for sterilization by surgical ligation of the fallopian tubes, performed through a small suprapubic incision.
Exposure of diaphragmatic region by an incision that opens both thorax and abdomen (thoraco-abdominal incision).